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Welcome to DIRECTIONS the monthly online newsletter of the Delaware Valley Association of Black Psychologists (DVABPsi). We look forward to providing our readers with pertinent information to support, encourage, and uplift our community and those who serve the community. The goal of DVABPsi is to make a positive impact on Black Mental Health today and in the future.


Views and opinions in DIRECTIONS are those of the authors and do not purport to represent the opinions or views of DVABPsi or its members.

Ayo Maria Gooden, Ph.D., ABPBC, Co-Editor

Auriane Kemegne, BA, Co-Editor

"It always seems impossible until it's done." - Nelson Mandela

Why pay for an advanced degree when you can go free ?

Learn more about the scholarship below.


The Bond-Hill Scholarship which allows PA residents who attend Lincoln or Cheyney, who graduate with at least a 3.0 to attend Pitt, Penn, Drexel, and possibly other PA universities free for medical, law, dental, podiatry, science, education, business, and others.


"Unconnected consciousness is destruction's keenest tool against the soul." - Ayi Kwei Armah


Dr. Carlton Payne has more than 30 years of experience in the field of psychology. He earned his BA in psychology from LaSalle University, his MS in Counseling Psychology from Villanova University and his PhD. in Educational Psychology from Temple University. He has taught college and graduate students and served as the Chief Psychologist and Director of Behavioral Health for the City of Philadelphia Prison System. His areas of expertise include Forensic Psychology, Psychological Testing/Assessment, Learning Abilities/Disabilities, Mediation/Dispute Resolution, Suicide Prevention/Grief Counseling, Diversity/Multicultural Education, Anger Management, and Curriculum Design.

Ebonee is a six part story addressing child abuse by Dr. Carlton Payne.

Ebonee is a fictitious story based on real events.


“I got home at about 3:00 in the afternoon and locked the front door. I went to my room and turned on the CD player. Usually Dora would not get home till five and so I didn’t have to hear her mouth cause I would be bumpin’ till four-thirty then turn it off before she got home. I used to do this every day.” “The phone rang and I went into Dora's room to answer it. It turned out to be a hang-up call. Well, on the way back to my room, I heard the key in the front door and the door opened just as usual but mom was an hour early. I dove on top of my bed and turned off the stereo. But when I got down to the living room it wasn't Dora, it was him.”

“I cursed her for not changing the locks. ‘You stupid bitch,’ I said out loud. “ ‘Who you callin a bitch?’ he said. ‘I just came by to say hello.’ " ‘You better get out of here,’ I said. “ ‘I knew you was gon’ be fine,’ he said. ‘Big ass, big titties, you got it all.” “Get out! Get out,’ I yelled.“ ‘Shut up,’ he said. ‘Not yet,’ and he started coming toward me. “I backed into the kitchen until I had my back to the sink. I turned my head when he tried to kiss me so he tweaked one of my breasts. “ ‘You know, I got to get me some of this.’ “I reached for the kitchen phone but he grabbed it and pulled the receiver out of the wall. He grabbed me. I began to fight and punched him in the face. That got him off of me. “He held his hand to his jaw. ‘You done got all strong now and think you grown,’ and that's when he slapped me and knocked me into the dishwater the dishes were soaking in, waiting for me to wash them. I was up to my elbows in water and my shirt and jeans were splashed and wet. Something scratched my hand. It was the blade of a butcher knife that I pulled out of the cold dishwater. It was covered with food and that's probably why he didn't take me seriously.

“He faked a lunge at me and I cringed. ‘See this? Your father did this to me in prison.’ He lifted his shirt and showed me a terrible scar on his chest. ‘Y'all both like knives, huh.’ He began to laugh, “I'm gon’ stick that knife up your HOLE.’ He pounced on me. We both fell to the floor, then he stopped moving. “He was on top of me and, when I finally crawled out from under him, I was covered with blood. He had fallen on the knife. I called Dora and begged her to come home. She did and she acted like she was mad with me. She always chose this man over me. “She called the police and they handcuffed me and brought me here. They’re trying to charge me as an adult with first degree murder. They’re talking about certifying me as an adult. They’re talking about the death penalty.”


A tear ran down Ebonee’s cheek. “I wish my grandma was still alive,” she said to me. Ebonee went to trial and was acquitted on the murder charge. Goldboy’s heart had been severely damaged in the prison incident. It was discovered that Ebonee had very little to do with his death. Her father had unknowingly saved her life. The whole process took two years and Ebonee was then eighteen. Although she spent most of the two years behind bars at the Center, she used the time to study and work hard to get her GED. I found out later that when she was finally released, following her acquittal, her mother was too busy to pay her any attention. "Why didn't you come to the trial Dora?" Ebonee asked. Dora said, “I can't talk now, I have AA meetings.” or “I have NA meetings.” Dora didn't have time for Ebonee, she was still addicted. The meetings had just taken the place of the drugs. Before she left the Center, I had given Ebonee information on college because I thought she was bright enough to do the work, as did she. She applied and was accepted. She worked hard and won a scholarship. But when she went to an interview to pick up the check, they found an irregularity on her high school diploma. She had to sit in front of a stern woman who questioned why Ebonee received a GED instead of a diploma.

"All are equals in the eyes of the ancestor" - Congolese proverb

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Featured monthly starting in December 2023
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CONGO: A Jewel of Central Africa

written by

Ayo Maria Gooden, Ph.D., ABPBC

Celebrating Family and Heritage: As we explore the country of the Congo, we're reminded of the importance of family and heritage. I am reminded that I am only two generations out of enslavement by people who identify themselves as white.  Although we are still fighting racism in its many forms, our family on the African continent is currently dying by the thousands at the hands of foreigners, primarily by whites but also by people from China and neighboring countries. Just as the bonds of family give us strength and purpose, so too does our connection to the rich cultural heritage of this remarkable land, the Congo which is part of our heritage.  The Congo has been arbitrarily cut by Caucasian invaders-the Belgium ruler King Leopold, II into the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is the largest country located to the southeast also called “Congo-Kinshasa” and the French took The Republic of the Congo which is the smaller country to the northwest of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and called “Congo-Brazzaville”. 


Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of the Congo are two different countries located in Central Africa.


In the late 15th Century the Congo River delta was a major commercial hub for trade. That is the period when the inhabitants of the Congo River delta first came into contact with Europeans. Leopold II of Belgium acquired rights to the Congo territory (Zaire region) at the Conference of Berlin in 1885 and made the land his private property by torturing, raping, and murdering over 100 million people and named it the Congo Free State. In 1908 the Belgian government took it over and then it was called Belgian Congo. On 30 June 1960 it got its independence under the name “Democratic Republic of the Congo".


In the 1880s the French made Middle Congo (modern Congo) its colony, once again by raping, torturing, and murdering millions of Blacks and named Brazzaville as its capital. On August 15, 1960, it got its independence and chose the name "Republic of Congo".


To avoid confusion, the countries were commonly referred to as Congo-Léopoldville and Congo-Brazzaville, concerning their capital. Sometimes Congo-Léopoldville was referred to as The Conga and Congo-Brazzaville as just Congo. On June 1, 1966, Mobutu renamed Léopoldville as Kinshasa as a clear rejection of the brutal raping, torturing, and murdering of Blacks to remove any resistance to Leopold stealing the gold, silver, rubber, and other resources. The country was then named the Democratic Republic of The Congo – Kinshasa.

Location and Climate:  


Republic of the Congo









Situated in Central Africa, the Congo is bordered by Gabon, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Atlantic Ocean. Its diverse geography encompasses lush rainforests, expansive savannas, and winding rivers. The climate varies from equatorial in the north to tropical in the south, with high humidity and rainfall throughout the year.

Flags and their meanings: 

  • Republic of Congo

The flag of the Congo is a symbol of the nation's resilience and aspirations. It features a diagonal tricolor of green, yellow, and red, with a blue triangle at the hoist. Green represents the country's lush vegetation and agricultural wealth, yellow symbolizes the nation's bright future and prosperity, red signifies the bloodshed and sacrifices made for independence.








  • Democratic Republic of Congo

Blue represents peace. Red stands for the blood of the country’s martyrs. Yellow represents the country’s wealth. The star is the symbol for the future of the country.


Congo-Brazzaville and Congo-Kinshasa both use French as their official language, as well as the local language known as Lingala. Congo-Kinshasa and Congo-Brazzaville have a variety of different national languages within each. In Congo-Brazzaville has a population of over 5 million and some of the languages include Kituba, Mbochi, and Teke. While Congo-Kinshasa, with its population of over 10 million, has over 200 ethnical languages, including Kikongo, Lingala, Swahili and Tshiluba to name a few of the most common.



The Congo is blessed with abundant natural resources, including timber, minerals, and hydroelectric potential. It is a leading producer of tropical hardwoods and is known for its vast reserves of minerals such as copper, cobalt, and diamonds, which play a crucial role in European economies. Without the resources from Africa, European countries including the United States of America could not be global powers.

1. Resources in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC):

  • Copper and Cobalt: The DRC is one of the largest producers of copper and cobalt globally, with vast reserves of both minerals. Major mining companies, including Glencore, China Molybdenum, and Freeport-McMoRan, are heavily involved in the extraction and processing of these minerals.

  • Gold: The DRC has substantial gold reserves, although much of the mining is conducted by artisanal miners. Companies such as Barrick Gold and AngloGold Ashanti also operate gold mines in the country.

  • Coltan (Tantalum): The DRC possesses significant reserves of coltan, a mineral used in electronic devices. Control over coltan mines is often contentious, with various armed groups vying for dominance in the region.

  • Diamonds: The DRC is a significant producer of diamonds, with both industrial and artisanal mining operations. However, the diamond trade has been associated with conflict and human rights abuses.

  • Oil: While not as prominent as in the Republic of Congo, the DRC also has some oil reserves, primarily located in the western part of the country.


Control over these resources in the DRC is often fragmented due to factors such as armed conflict, corruption, and the presence of numerous militia groups. The government, as well as European and USA international corporations, exert influence over the mining sector, but informal networks and illegal mining activities also play a significant role.

2. Resources in Republic of Congo:

  • Oil: The Republic of Congo is one of the largest oil producers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Companies such as Total Energies, Eni, and Chevron are involved in oil exploitation and production activities in the country that do not benefit the masses in the country.

  • Timber: The Republic of Congo has vast forests, and timber extraction is a significant industry, that, once again does not benefit the majority of people in the country. Chinese companies have been prominent in taking timber from the country. There is illegal logging and unsustainable practices that will create environmental problems and abuses of the Black workers.

  • Potash: The Republic of Congo has significant potash reserves, with the Kouilou Potash Project being one of the largest in Africa. The government has sought to attract investment in potash mining to diversify the economy.  Potash refers to various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. The term "potash" is often used interchangeably with potassium compounds, particularly potassium chloride (KCl), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), and potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Potash is primarily valued for its high potassium content, which is an essential nutrient for plant growth. 


Here's a breakdown of the value and uses of potash:

a. Agricultural Fertilizer: Potash is primarily used as a fertilizer in agriculture to improve the yield and quality of crops. Potassium is a vital nutrient required for various physiological processes in plants, including photosynthesis, water uptake, and nutrient transport. Therefore, the application of potash helps to enhance crop growth, yield, and resistance to diseases and stresses.

b. Industrial Applications: Potash compounds are also used in various industrial applications:

  • Potassium chloride (KCl) is used in the production of potassium hydroxide (KOH), which is a precursor to various industrial chemicals such as potassium carbonate and potassium sulfate.

  • Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is utilized in the manufacturing of glass, soap, and detergents.

  • Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) is employed in the production of fertilizers, as well as in the manufacturing of various industrial chemicals.

c. Other Uses: Potash has additional applications in:

  • Water softening: Potassium chloride is used in water softening systems to replace calcium and magnesium ions with potassium ions.

  • Animal nutrition: Potassium is also an essential nutrient for animal health, and potash can be added to animal feed to supplement their dietary potassium intake.

d. Value: The value of potash varies depending on factors such as purity, market demand, and global supply dynamics. As of recent years, the global potash market has experienced fluctuations in prices due to factors like changes in agricultural practices, currency exchange rates, and geopolitical tensions among major producers. Generally, potash is considered a valuable commodity due to its critical role in agriculture and industrial applications, making it an important component of global trade and economic activity.


Control over resources in the Republic of Congo is more centralized compared to the DRC, with the government playing a dominant role in resource management and regulation. However, like in the DRC, corruption and opaque practices affect the distribution of wealth primarily to Europeans and Chinese derived from these resources.


The countries that benefit the most from the resources in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Republic of Congo vary depending on the specific resources and industries involved. Here's a breakdown:


Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC):

  • Mining Companies: International mining companies, particularly those involved in the extraction and processing of minerals such as copper, cobalt, gold, and coltan, benefit significantly from the resources in the DRC. Companies like Glencore, China Molybdenum, Freeport-McMoRan, and Barrick Gold have substantial investments in the DRC's mining sector.

    • There are many documentaries about mining in DRC. The documentary below "shows the dark side of cobalt mining. Child labor is just one of many problems. The entire sector is riddled with corruption. Soil is contaminated and people's health and lives are put at risk. China's market dominance is driving Europe into a dangerous dependency. Faced with the gigantic problems posed by the coveted raw material, the EU is looking for other ways to get its hands on cobalt." *This documentary might contain trigger warnings.

  • Foreign Governments: Some foreign governments benefit indirectly through investments in Congolese resources or through trade agreements. China, for instance, has been heavily involved in infrastructure projects in the DRC in exchange for access to mineral resources. Other countries with significant investments in the DRC's mining sector may also benefit economically.

  • Local Elite and Government Officials: Corruption and mismanagement are pervasive issues in the DRC, and a portion of the profits from resource extraction often ends up in the hands of the local elite and government officials rather than benefiting the broader population.


Republic of Congo:

  • Oil Companies: The Republic of Congo benefits primarily from its oil resources, with international oil companies such as TotalEnergies, Eni, and Chevron playing a significant role in exploration, production, and exportation of oil. These companies contribute to the country's revenue through taxes, royalties, and production-sharing agreements.

  • Government: The government of the Republic of Congo directly benefits from oil revenues through taxes, royalties, and other forms of revenue sharing with oil companies. However, issues of corruption and mismanagement have led to concerns about the equitable distribution of these revenues and their impact on the broader population.

  • Timber Companies: In addition to oil, timber extraction is a significant industry in the Republic of Congo. Companies involved in logging and timber exports benefit from the country's vast forest resources.


Overall, while these countries possess abundant natural resources, challenges such as racist European including the USA governments using military power and bribes to take control over the resources, corruption, mismanagement, and conflict among the people are used to prevent the equitable distribution of benefits, with a significant portion of the wealth generated by resource extraction failing to translate into meaningful improvements in the living standards of the population at large.

Several companies from the United States are involved in benefiting from the resources in the Republic of Congo (ROC) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), particularly in the extractive industries. Here are some examples:

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC):

  • Freeport-McMoRan: Freeport-McMoRan is a leading international mining company with significant operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is involved in the extraction and processing of copper and cobalt, which are abundant in the DRC.

  • Caterpillar Inc.: Caterpillar, the U.S.-based heavy equipment manufacturer, provides machinery and equipment used in mining operations in the DRC. Its products, including mining trucks, excavators, and loaders, are utilized by mining companies operating in the country.

  • Alphamin Resources Corp.: While not headquartered in the United States, Alphamin Resources Corp., a Canadian company, operates the Bisie Tin Project in the DRC. The project aims to become one of the world's premier tin mines and has received financing and support from U.S.-based investors.

Republic of Congo (ROC):

  • Chevron Corporation: Chevron is one of the major oil companies operating in the Republic of Congo. It engages in oil exploration, production, and exportation activities, contributing to the country's oil revenue.

  • ExxonMobil: ExxonMobil is involved in oil exploration and production in various countries worldwide, including some African nations. While not as prominent in the Republic of Congo as in other regions, ExxonMobil may have interests in oil-related activities in the country.

  • Kosmos Energy: Kosmos Energy, though primarily focused on exploration and production in Ghana and other West African countries, has also engaged in oil exploration activities in the Republic of Congo.


It's important to note that while these companies may benefit from resource extraction in the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo, the extent of their involvement and the impact on local communities and the environment can vary. Additionally, issues such as governance, transparency, and social responsibility are crucial considerations in evaluating the overall impact of foreign companies operating in these countries.

Estimating the exact dollar amount generated by the resources coming from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Republic of Congo (ROC) in one year can be challenging due to various factors such as fluctuating commodity prices, changes in production levels, and differences in reporting standards. However, we can provide rough estimates based on available data and general trends:

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC):

The DRC is a significant producer of copper, cobalt, gold, coltan, and other minerals. In recent years, the combined export value of these minerals has been substantial. For example, in 2019, the DRC's mineral exports were valued at approximately $8.5 billion USD according to data from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). However, it's important to note that a significant portion of the mineral trade in the DRC is informal or illegal, making it challenging to accurately quantify the total value of resource exports.

Republic of Congo (ROC):

The Republic of Congo's economy is heavily dependent on oil, with oil exports accounting for the majority of the country's export revenue. In 2019, the ROC's oil exports were valued at approximately $7.6 billion USD, according to data from the IMF. However, similar to the DRC, issues such as corruption and mismanagement may affect the accurate estimation of the total revenue generated from resource extraction in the country.


It's essential to approach these estimates with caution, as they represent rough approximations based on available data. The actual dollar amount generated by resources from these countries can vary from year to year depending on factors such as global market conditions, production levels, and changes in government policies and regulations.



Congolese cuisine is a delightful fusion of flavors influenced by indigenous traditions and colonial heritage. Staple foods include cassava, plantains, maize, and rice, often accompanied by flavorful stews, grilled meats, and fresh fish sourced from the country's rivers and lakes. Popular dishes include fufu, saka saka, and moambe chicken. The Congo is home to a rich variety of unique and exotic fruits that thrive in its tropical climate. Some of the distinctive fruits found in the Congo include:

  • Pitaya (Dragon Fruit): This vibrant fruit is known for its striking appearance with pink or yellow skin and white or red flesh speckled with black seeds. It has a mild, sweet flavor and is rich in antioxidants.


  • Soursop (Graviola, Guanabana, Paw-paw, Sirsak, Prickly Custard, Annona Muricata): Soursop is a spiky green fruit with a soft, creamy flesh and a flavor that's a blend of pineapple and strawberry with citrus undertones. It's often used in smoothies, juices, and desserts.

  • African Star Apple (Agbalumo/Udara): This fruit has a unique star-shaped core and is typically green when unripe, turning to a yellow-orange color when ripe. It has a tangy-sweet taste and is commonly eaten fresh or used in jams and drinks.

  • Bitter Kola: Bitter kola is a small, bitter-tasting nut that grows on the kola tree. It is often used in traditional medicine for its purported health benefits and stimulant properties.



  • African Mango: Also known as bush mango or wild mango, this fruit is smaller than the common mango and has a fibrous texture. It's often used in traditional African dishes and has a sweet, tangy flavor.

  • Passion Fruit: Passion fruit is a small, round fruit with a tough outer rind and juicy, seed-filled pulp. It has a sweet-tart flavor and is commonly used in juices, desserts, and cocktails.


  • African Cherry (Agbalumo/Udara): Similar in appearance to a cherry tomato, the African cherry has a tart-sweet flavor and is often enjoyed fresh or used in jams and preserves.


  • African Pear (Ube): Also known as bush pear or butter pear, the African pear has a creamy texture and a slightly sweet taste. It's commonly eaten fresh or used in cooking and baking.




These are just a few examples of the unique fruits found in the Congo, each contributing to the diverse and flavorful culinary landscape of the region.

We will continue our discovery of Congo next month.


What's happening in Congo ?

In the meantime, you can read about what's going on in Congo here.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

We are asking DVABPsi members to dig deep and donate money (to help pay for bus passes for doctor and lawyer appointments, food, medicine, etc.), clothing, interpretation services, tutoring English (If you speak French, Portuguese, Spanish, Mandingo, Fulani, Sosso), etc. to help our people. If you know of a building or housing that is available, please let us know. If you have a car, van, truck, boat, or other vehicle, let us know. 

We hope you will donate generously to the of Guinea Community of Delaware Valley, Inc. You may reach Brother Ousmane Tounkara at or call 302-565-8027 to make donations directly or you may contact Brother Holmes at 267-282-1062.  DVABPsi is also a tax-exempt organization and you may donate your items to DVABPsi and we will make sure your donations are given to our Guinea family. Please look at the services listed below that our Guinea family has to offer. Around 65% have degrees in the following areas:

  • Civil engineering

  • Accounting

  • Finance

  • Computer Science

  • International relations


The remaining 35% might have a profession (skilled workers such as electrical) and manual work experience.


DVABPsi is also a tax-exempt organization and you may donate your items to DVABPsi and we will make sure your donations are given to our Guinea and African family.

You may evaluate your donations by following this link. Thank you for your generosity!

Don’t sit down and wait for the opportunities to come. Get up and make them.”  - Madam CJ Walker



        The Association of Black Psychologists ( and DVABPsi  


Make your contribution to healing our people! 

Your donations allow us to provide free

  • Individual Therapy

  • Couples Therapy

  • Family Therapy

  • Court Assessments

​The more you donate, the more we can serve.

DVABPsi membership dues were increased to $50.00 for professionals and associate members, $25 for elders and $20 for students. Membership information and the application form can be found on our website.



  • Free CEs for Licensed Psychologists and licensed social workers


  • Advertising Your Products (Books, Toys, Products Research, etc.)


  • Opportunity to Present your Books or Research during our monthly Mbongi


  • Jegnaship (Mentoring) for Graduate and Undergraduate Students


  • Community Partnerships and Involvement


  • Job Opportunities and Advanced Notices of Job Postings


  • Networking with other Blacks in psychology, social work, marriage and family therapy, counseling


  • Opportunity to Receive Supervision for Licensure


  • Advertise your Workshops/Training or Business to Members and other Mental Health Professionals

“Courage is the most important of all the virtues because without courage, you can’t practice any other virtue consistently.” - Maya Angelou

      Opportunity to Advertise in DIRECTIONS Newsletter 

Advertisements can be submitted for review and publication at least three weeks before the next month's issue along with a check or money order payable to:

DVABPsi or you may make an online payment. Advertisement rates are as follows:

                                 Full Page:  $100.00

                                 Half Page:  $50.00

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                                 Business Card: $15.00 


Mailing address:     Ayo Maria Gooden, Ph.D., ABPBC, Co-Editor

                                 DIRECTIONS Newsletter

                                 Delaware Valley Association of Black Psychologists

                                 P.O. Box 542

                                 Westtown, PA  19395-0542

Directions Submissions

Members of DVABPsi are encouraged to submit articles, poems, announcements,  quotations, employment opportunities, and information related to undergraduate,   graduate, and post-graduate programs in psychology.   We welcome non-member guest contributors.  Members of DVABPsi are encouraged to submit their research, papers on their areas of interest and reflections on current events.  Please submit a short bio and photo with articles. Related pictures and graphics can also be submitted with articles. Contact: DIRECTIONS Newsletter Team for additional information at:

”You don’t make progress by standing on the sidelines, whimpering and complaining. You make progress by implementing ideas.” - Shirley Chisolm



The Mashariki Gazeti

                                                A CALL FOR PAPERS​​

Calling all articles (scholarly, opinions, etc.) about Africa, Africans, African Americans, psychology, advertisements, events, poetry, quotes, and announcements. The Mashariki Gazeti (MG) is published twice (i.e. September and March) during the fiscal year (i.e. August to July). Submission deadlines are August 15th and February 15th.

Advertisement Rates

Advertise employment opportunities, business ventures, office space, conferences, business cards, trips, and other events. Our circulation reaches over 300 people in Boston, New York, New Jersey, Delaware Valley (i.e. Philadelphia and surroundings), and Washington, D.C.

$100.00 – full page
$50.00 – ½ page
$25.00 – ¼ page
$15.00 – business card

Advertisements must be camera ready. Make checks or money orders payable to:

Dr. Faruq Iman

Please submit all articles, ads, etc. to:

Faruq T.N. Iman, Ph.D., C.H.P., Editor

1301 N. 54 th Street
Philadelphia, PA 19131-4307

(215) 921 – 2557

“You are on the eve of a complete victory. You can’t go wrong. The world is behind you.” – Josephine Baker


"I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must be done does away with fear." – Rosa Parks

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